california is the third largest state in the usa but has the largest population. 加州是美国第三大洲, 而且是人口最多的州。 it also has the distinction of being the most multicultural state in the usa, having attracted people from all over the world. 加州与众不同之处在于它也是美国最具多元文化的一个州。它吸引了来自世界各地的人们。 the customs and languages of the immigrants live on in their new home. 这些移民的风俗习惯以及语言在他们的新家都得以延续。 this diversity of culture is not surprising when you know the history of california.当你了解了加利福尼亚的历史，你就不会对其文化的多样性感到惊奇了。
exactly when the first people arrived in what we now know as california, no one really knows. 最早一批人具体是什么时候来到我们现在了解的加利福尼亚地区的, 谁也说不清楚。 however, it is likely that native americans were living in california at least fifteen thousand years ago. 然而，可能至少在一15,000年以前美洲土著人就住在加利福尼亚了。scientists believe that these settlers crossed the bering strait in the arctic to america by means of a land bridge which existed in prehistoric times. 科学家们认为这些迁居者通过一条史前时期曾经存在的大陆桥穿越北极地区的白令海峡到达美洲。 in the 16th century, after the arrival of the europeans, the native people suffered greatly. 欧洲人在16世纪到来这里之后，土著人遭受了极大的苦难。 thousands were killed or forced into slavery. 成千上万人被杀或被迫成为奴隶。in addition, many died from the diseases brought by the europeans. 另外, 欧洲人带来的疾病，使许多人染病而死。 however, some survived these terrible times, and today there are more native americans living in california than in any other state. 不过，还是有一些人经历了这些恐怖时期而活下来了。今天住在加利福尼亚的美洲土著人比任何其他州的都要多。
in the 18th century california was ruled by spain. 在18世纪的时候，加利福尼亚是被西班牙统治的。 spanish soldiers first arrived in south america in the early 16th century, when they fought against the native people and took their land. 西班牙士兵最早是在16世纪初期来到南美洲的，他们同土著人打仗，夺去了他们的土地。two centuries later, the spanish had settled in most parts of south america and along the northwest coast of what we now call the united states. 两个世纪以后, 西班牙人在南美洲大部分地区定居下来，而且还在我们现在称之为美国的西北沿海地区住下来。of the first spanish to go to california, the majority were religious men, whose ministry was to teach the catholic religion to the natives. 在首批移居加利福尼亚州的西班牙人中，大部分是宗教人士，他们的职责是向原住居民传授天主教。in 1821, the people of mexico gained their independence from spain. 1821年,墨西哥人从西班牙获得了独立。 california then became part of mexico.加利福尼亚于是成了墨西哥的一部分。in 1846 the united states declared war on mexico, and after the war won by the usa, mexico had to give california to the usa. 1846年美国向墨西哥宣战，美国赢得战争胜利后，墨西哥被迫把加利福尼亚割让给美国。however, there is still a strong spanish influence in the state. 但是,这个州至今仍然保留着很强的西班牙文化的影响。that is why today over 40 of californians speak spanish as a first or second language. 这就是为什么今天还有40%的加利福尼亚人仍然把西班牙语作为第一或第二语言的缘故。
in the early 1800s, russian hunters, who had originally gone to alaska, began settling in california. 在19世纪初期，一批最初到阿拉斯加的俄罗斯猎人开始在加利福尼亚定居下来。 today there are about 25,000 russian-americans living in and around san francisco.今天，住在旧金山及其周边地区的美籍俄罗斯人大约25，000人。
in 1848, not long after the american-mexican war, gold was discovered in california. 1848年,美墨战争后不久,在加利福尼亚发现了金矿。 the dream of becoming rich quickly attracted people from all over the world. 发财梦很快就吸引了来自世界各地的人。the nearest, and therefore the first to arrive, were south americans and people from the united states. 距离最近因而来的最早的是南美洲人和美国人， then adventurers from europe and asia soon followed. 随后跟着来的有欧洲和亚洲的探险家。 in fact, few achieved their dream of becoming rich. 事实上, 很少有人圆了发财梦。some died or returned home, but most remained in california to make a life for themselves despite great hardship. they settled in the new towns or on farms. 许多人死了或回家了，但是尽管条件十分艰苦，大多数人仍然留在了加利福尼亚劳作谋生，在新的城镇或农场里定居下来。 by the time california elected to become the thirty-first federal state of the usa in 1850, it was already a multicultural society.到1850年加利福尼亚成为美国第31个州的时候, 它已经是一个有着多元文化的社会了。
later a rrivals后来的移民
although chinese immigrants began to arrive during the gold rush period, it was the building of the rail network from the west to the east coast that brought even larger numbers to california in the 1860s. 虽然中国移民在淘金热期间就开始来到（美国），但是更大批量的中国移民却是在十九世纪六十年代为了修建贯穿美国东西海岸的铁路而来的。today, chinese-americans live in all parts of california, although a large percentage have chosen to stay in the "chinatowns" of los angeles and san francisco. 今天,加利福尼亚州各地都有美藉华人居住,尽管有很大比例的华人还是选择住在洛杉矶和旧金山的“中国城”里。other immigrants such as italians, mainly fishermen but also wine makers, arrived in california in the late 19th century. 十九世纪后期，其他国家的移民，比如意大利人来到加利福尼亚，他们主要是渔民，也有些酿酒工人。 in 1911 immigrants from denmark established a town of their own, which today still keeps up their danish culture. 1911年丹麦移民建立了他们自己的城镇，至今仍保留着丹麦文化。 by the 1920s the film industry was well established in hollywood, california. 到了二十世纪二十年代，电影产业在加利福尼亚州的好莱坞建立了起来。 the industry boom attracted europeans including many jewish people. 这个行业吸引了许多欧洲人包括许多犹太人。today california has the second largest jewish population in the united states. 今天，加利福尼亚的犹太人口在美国占第二位。japanese farmers began arriving in california at the beginning of the 20th century, and since the 1980s a lot more have settled there. 日本的农民是在20世纪初期开始到加利福尼亚来的,而从20世纪80年代以来就有更多的日本人在加利福尼亚定居了。 people from africa have been living in california since the 1800s, when they moved north from mexico. 非洲人从19世纪就在加利福尼亚住下来，他们是从墨西哥向北迁来的。however, even more arrived between 1942 and 1945 to work in the ship and aircraft industries. 然而更多的非洲人在1942年到1945年之间来到加利福尼亚的，当时他们是到船厂和飞机厂工作的。
most recent arrivals最近期的移民
in more recent decades, california has become home to more people from asia, including koreans, cambodians, vietnamese and laotians. 在最近几十年里,加利福尼亚成了亚洲人的家,包括柬埔寨人、朝鲜人、越南人和老挝人。 since its beginning in the 1970s, the computer industry has attracted indians and pakistanis to california. 从20世纪70年代开始发展计算机工业以来，加利福尼亚又吸引了印度人和巴勒斯坦人的到来。
people from different parts of the world, attracted by the climate and the lifestyle, still immigrate to california世界各地的人，由于受气候条件和生活方式的吸引,仍然在继续迁入加利福尼亚。. it is believed that before long the mix of nationalities will be so great that there will be no distinct major racial or cultural groups, but simply a mixture of many races and cultures. 人们认为, 要不了多久，多种国籍的混合将会非常之大，以至于不可能存在一种主要的种族或文化群体，而只是多种族、多文化的混合体。
1.means. n. 手段；方法
2.slavery. n. 受奴役的状态；奴隶制
3.majority. n. 大多数；大半
4.immigration. n. 移居入境；移民
5.percentage. n. 百分比；百分率
6.aircraft. n. 飞行器；航空器；飞机
7.mix. vt. 混合；拌和 n. 混合；结合
8.mixture. n. 混合；混合状态；混合物
9.nationality. n. 国籍；民族
10.racial. adj. 人族的；种族的
11.applicant. n. 申请人
12.socialist. n. 社会主义者；社会党人 adj. 社会主义的
13.occur. vi. 发生；出现
14.central. adj. 中心的；中央的；主要的
15.indicate. vt. 指出；标示；表明；暗示
16.swap. vi&vt. 交换
17.apparent. adj. 显而易见的；显然的；表面上的
18.apparently. adv. 显然地；显而易见的
19.slip. vi. 滑动；滑行；滑跤 n. 滑动；滑倒
20.ferry. n. 渡船；渡口 vt. 摆渡；渡运
21.hire. vt&n. 租用；雇佣
22.insert. vt. 插入；嵌入
23.react. vi. 作出反应；回应
1.by means of 用……方法；借助……
2.in addition 而且
3.declare war on ……向……宣战
4.take in 包括；吸收
5.a great/good many 许多，很多
6.at various times 在不同时代
7. make a life (for sb.) 习惯于新的生活方式、工作等；谋生
8. keep up 保持；继续
9.ger/have a good view of 好好欣赏……
10.team up with 与……合作或一起工作
11.mark out 划线；标出……界线
cloning:where is it leading us?克隆：它将把我们引向何方？
cloning has always been with us and is here to stay. 克隆一直与我们同在，而且它还要持续下去。it is a way of making an exact copy of another animal or plant. 这是一种用来生产与原型完全相同的动植物的方法。 it happens in plants when gardeners take cuttings from growing plants to make new ones. 当园艺师从生长着的植物上剪下枝条来培植新植物时，就会产生这种现象。 it also happens in animals when twins identical in sex and appearance are produced from the same original egg. 这种现象也发生在动物身上，从同一个原生卵子产生性别和相貌相同的双胞胎也是克隆。the fact is that these are both examples of natural clones.实际上，这些都是自然克隆现象。
cloning has two major uses. 克隆技术有两大用途。 firstly, gardeners use it all the time to produce commercial quantities of plants. 第一，园艺师一直用它生产大量的供商用的植物； secondly, it is valuable for research on new plant species and for medical research on animals. 第二，它在对新植物物种的研究以及在对动物的医学研究方面都是很有价值的。 cloning plants is straightforward while cloning animals is very complicated. it is a difficult task to undertake.克隆植物简单，但克隆动物就比较复杂了，是一项很难完成的任务。many attempts to clone mammals failed. 克隆哺乳动物的多次尝试都失败了。 but at last the determination and patience of the scientists paid off in 1996 with a breakthrough- the cloning of dolly the sheep. 但是，科学家的决心和耐心最终得到了回报，这就是1996年具有突破性的克隆羊“多莉”的诞生。the procedure works like this:它的程序如下图（略）所示：
on the one hand, the whole scientific world followed the progress of the first successful clone, dolly the sheep. 一方面整个科学界都在关注着首例成功的克隆动物多莉羊的成长。 the fact that she seemed to develop normally was very encouraging. 多莉看来是在正常地成长着，这很令人鼓舞。then came the disturbing news that dolly had become seriously ill. 接着传来了多莉病重的坏消息。 cloning scientists were cast down to find that dolly's illnesses were more appropriate to a much older animal. 研究看来的科学家发现多莉得的病更容易发生在年老的羊身上，这让他们很沮丧。 altogether dolly lived six and a half years, half the length of the life of the original sheep. 可悲的是，多莉只活了六年半，这是它的原型羊寿命的一半。 sadly the same arbitrary fate affected other species, such as cloned mice. 可悲的是，同样无法控制的命运也在影响着其他物种，如克隆鼠。the questions that concerned all scientists were: "would this be a major difficulty for all cloned animals? 科学家们的脑海里产生的问题是“这是不是所有克隆动物的一个主要困难呢？would it happen forever? could it be solved if corrections were made in their research procedure?" 这种现象会不会永远发生？如果改进研究程序，问题会不会解决呢？”
on the other hand, dolly's appearance raised a storm of objections and had a great impact on the media and public imagination. 另一方面，多莉羊的出现引起了一阵强烈的反对，对媒体和公众的想象力也产生了极大的影响。 it became controversial. it suddenly opened everybody's eyes to the possibility of using cloning to cure serious illnesses and even to produce human beings. 它引起了争议，因为它突破打开了人们的眼界，看到了有可能利用克隆技术来治疗重病，甚至还有可能克隆出人类。
although at present human egg cells and embryos needed for cloning research are difficult to obtain, newspapers wrote of evil leaders hoping to clone themselves to attain their ambitions. 尽管目前供克隆研究的人类卵细胞很难获得，报纸报道说，有些邪恶头目希望把自己克隆出来以实现他们的野心。religious leaders also raised moral questions. 宗教领袖还提出了道德方面的问题。 governments became nervous and more conservative. 各国政府惶恐不安而且更加谨慎。some began to reform their legal systems and forbade research into human cloning, but other countries like china and the uk, continued to accumulate evidence of the abundant medical aid that cloning could provide. 有些政府开始改革司法制度，明令禁止进行克隆人类的研究，但是其他国家，如中国和英国，则仍然在继续收集克隆技术有可能提供丰富的医疗救助的证据。 however, scientists still wonder whether cloning will help or harm us and where it is leading us.然而科学家们仍对克隆技术有助于人类还是有害于人类，以及克隆技术将把我们引向哪里感到困惑。
1. differ vi. 不同：相异
2. exact adj. 准确的，精确的：精密的
3. commercial adj.商业的：贸易的
4. straightforward adj. 简单的：直接的：坦率的
5. undertake vt.着手：从事：承担
6. breakthough n.突破
7. disturbing adj. 烦扰的
8. arbitrary adj. 任意的
9. altogether adv.总共：完全地
10. object vi. 不赞成：反对
11. moral adj.道德上的：伦理的
12. forbid vt.禁止：不准
13. accumulate vt.积累：聚积
14. shortly adv.立刻：不久
15. bother v./n.打扰：操心/烦扰
16. assumption n.假定：设想
17. regulation n. 规则：规章：法规
18. extinct adj. 灭绝的：绝种的
19. resist vt.抵抗：对抗
20. merely adv. 仅：只：不过
21. decoration n.装饰
22. unable adj. 不能的：不会的
23. argument n. 论据：论点：争论
24. obtain vt. 获得：得到
25. identical adj.同一的：一模一样的
1. (sb. be) cast down (by) 使沮丧
2. object to sth./sb. 不赞成，反对
object to doing sth. 反对某人干某事
have no objection to sb. doing sth. 不反对某人干某事
3. in favor of 赞成，同意，支持，看中，选中
in sb.’s favor 对某人有利的（地）
do sb. a favor 帮某人忙
4. (be) bound to (do) 一定，注定（做）。。。
5. from time to time 不时，偶尔
6. bring back to life 使复生
7. pay off （无被动）得到好结果，取得成功，奏效，偿清，付清
pay a visit to 拜访，访问
pay attention to 注意
pay for 为。。。付款，为。。。付出代价
8. have an impact on 对。。。有影响
9. pass on …to 将。。。传给。。。
10. take turns to do sth. 轮流干某事
11. experiment with 进行。。。的试验
12. give birth to 生，使诞生
13. look back on 回顾
14. differ from 不同于，和。。。不同，和。。。意见不一致
differ in 在。。方面不同
differ with 与某人意见不同
be different from 与。。。不同，有区别
make a difference 产生差别，起重要作用
make no difference 不起作用
tell the difference between a and b 分辨出a与b的不同，区分a与b
15. undertake sth. 承担某事
16. forbid sth./doing sth. 禁止某事/干某事
forbid sb. to do sth 不准某人干某事.
forbid sb.from doing sth. 禁止某人干某事
17. bother sb. with/about sth. 为某事打扰或烦扰某人
the thing that bothers sb. is …让某人感到不安的是…
18. resist doing sth. 反对做某事
resist the temptation 抵抗诱惑
19. be bound to do/be 一定，注定
20. find/think/make + it + adj. for sb. to do 发现/思考/让某人做…
find sb./sth. done/doing 发现某人/某物怎么样
the problem of the shrikes蛇的困扰
when i called up my mother in the countryside on the telephone she was very upset. 我给住在乡下的母亲打电话的时候，她感到很心烦。 "there are some snakes in our courtyard," she told me. “我们院子里有几条蛇，”她告诉我说， "snakes come near the house now and then, and they seem to have made their home here, not far from the walnut tree. can you get rid of them please?" “蛇时不时地爬到屋子边上来。可这几条蛇似乎是在屋子附近离胡桃树不远的地方安家了。你能不能把它们赶走？” i felt very proud. 我感到很自豪， here was a chance for .me to distinguish myself by inventing something merciful that would catch snakes but not harm them. 这回我有机会来表现一下自己了。我要发明某种仁慈的东西。既可以把蛇捉住，而又不会伤害它们。 i knew my parents would not like me to hurt these living creatures!我知道我的父母亲是不会让我伤害这些生物的。
the first thing i did was to see if there were any products that might help me, but there only seemed to be powders designed to kill snakes. 我所做的第一件事就是看看有没有现成的产品能帮助我。但是，看来只有一种毒杀蛇的药粉。 a new approach was clearly needed. 很明显，我得找一种新的方法了。 i set about researching the habits of snakes to find the easiest way to trap them. 于是我就着手研究蛇的习性，以便能找到最容易的方法捉住它们。luckily these reptiles are small and that made the solution easier. 好在这些爬行动物都很小，问题比较容易解决。
prepared with some research findings, i decided on three possible approaches: 经过一番研究准备之后，我决定采用三种可能的方法： firstly, removing their habitat; 第一，铲除蛇的栖息地；secondly, attracting them into a trap using male or female perfume or food; 第二，用男人或女人用的香水或食物把它们引进陷阱； and thirdly cooling them so that they would become sleepy and could be easily caught. 第三，降低它们的体温，使它们困乏，这样就容易把它们捉住。 i decided to use the last one. 我决定采用最后一种方法。 i bought an ice-cream maker which was made of stainless steel. between the outside and the inside walls of the bowl there is some jelly, which freezes when cooled. 我买了一个制冰淇淋的不锈钢碗，在碗的内壁和外壁之间有些胶状物，冷却后会冻结。 i put the bowl into the fridge and waited for 24 hours. 我把这个碗放进冰箱，冷冻了24小时。at the same time i prepared some ice-cubes.与此同时，我还准备了一些冰块儿。
the next morning i got up early before the sun was hot. 第二天早晨太阳光还不太热，我就早早起床了。i placed the frozen bowl over the snakes' habitat and the ice-cubes on top of the bowl to keep it cool. 我把冰冻的碗放在蛇窝的上方，再把小冰块放在碗上，以使碗保持冷却状态。 finally i covered the whole thing with a large bucket. 最后再用一个大桶把碗罩住。于是我就等着。then i waited. after two hours i removed the bucket and the bowl. 过了两个小时我才把桶和碗一起拿开。 the snakes were less active but they were still too fast for me. 蛇不像以前那么活跃了。 they abruptly disappeared into a convenient hole in the wall. 但是对于我来说，它们行动还是太快了，突然一下子就消失在附近的墙洞里去了。 so i had to adjust my plan.于是我只得调整我的计划。
for the second attempt i froze the bowl and the ice-cubes again but placed them over the snakes' habitat in the evening, as the temperature was starting to cool.第二次试验我用的还是冰冻的碗和冰块儿，但是这次我是在夜晚气温开始变凉的时候把它们放在蛇窝的上方， then as before, i covered the bowl with the bucket and left everything overnight. 然后用桶把碗罩住，通宵放在那儿。 early the next morning i returned to see the result. 第二天一早我就去看结果。this time with great caution i bent down to examine the snakes and i found them very sleepy. 这一次我蹲下去检查的时候，发现蛇都是睡意浓浓的。 but once picked up, they tried to bite me. 但是一把它们提起来，它们就要咬我。 as they were poisonous snakes, i clearly needed to improve my design again.因为它们都是毒蛇，所以很显然我还得改进我的捕蛇方案。
my third attempt repeated the second procedure. 第三次试验重复了第二次的程序，the next morning i carried in my hand a small net used for catching fish. this was in the expectation that the snakes would bite again. 第二天早晨我的手里拿了一个捕鱼的小网，这是因为我预料蛇还会再咬人。but monitored carefully, the snakes proved to be no trouble and all went according to plan. 经过仔细的监视，证明这些蛇不会惹麻烦，一切都按计划进行着。i collected the passive snakes and the next day we merrily released them all back into the wild.我把这些温顺的蛇收集起来，第二天就把他们全部释放到野外了。
pressed by my friends and relations, i decided to seize the opportunity to get recognition for my successful idea by sending my invention to the patent office. 由于朋友和亲戚的敦促，我决定抓住这次机会把我的发明送到专利局去，请他们对我这次成功的思路给予认可。 only after you have had that recognition can you say that you are truly an inventor. 只有你得到这种承认，你才可以说是一个真正的发明家。the criteria are so strict that it is difficult to get new ideas accepted unless they are truly novel. （评定）专利标准非常严格，除非新的想法真是新颖的，否则很难被接受。in addition, no invention will get a patent if it is:此外，你的想法如果属于下列情况，那么你也不可能得到专利：
◎a scientific idea or mathematical model一种科学理论或数学模式
◎literature or art文学或艺术
◎a game or a business一场游戏或一笔交易
◎a computer programme一个电脑程序
◎a new animal or plant variety一种新的动植物物种
nor will you receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everyone else's. 你的产品要经过仔细调查，证明它确实与众不同的，你才能获得专利。 there are a large number of patent examiners, too, whose only job is to examine whether your claim is valid or not. 专利局还有一大批审查人员，他们的唯一职责就是审查你的专利申请是否有效。 if it passes all the tests, your application for a patent will be published 18 months from the date you apply. 如果通过了所有这些审查，你申请的专利就会在你提出申请的18个月之后公布出来。 so i have filled in the form and filed my patent application with the patent office. 于是，我填了表，向专利局提交了申请书。 now it's a matter of waiting and hoping. 现在就是等待和期盼了。 you'll know if i succeed by the size of my bank balance! 将来你看看我的银行结余金额就会知道我是否成功了。 wish me luck!祝我好运吧！
1. discovery n. 发现；发觉
2. patent n.专利证书；专利发明
3. distinguish vi&vt显示……的差别；使……有所不同；辨别
4. product n. 产品
5. powder n.粉末；火药
6. abrupt adj.突然的；意外的
7. convenient adj.便利的；方便的
8. expectation n.预料；期望
9. monitor vt. n.监控;班长；监听器；监视器
11. valid adj.有效的；确凿的
17.dot n. vt.点；小圆点，以小圆点标出；分散
18.tap vt. n.轻打；轻拍；轻敲，轻轻地敲击；龙头
20.current n. /adj.电流；现在的；当前的
25.version n. 版本；译本
1. now and then 偶尔；有时
2. get rid of 除去；除掉
3. set about 开始；着手
4. in case （以防）万一
5. set out to do 开始（做）
6. be aware of 意识到
7. in truth 的确；事实上
8. out of order 次序颠倒；发生故障
9. get through 设法联系上；做完，通过
10. ring back 回复电话
11. call up 给……打电话
12. dive into 迅速把手伸入；一心投入
13. hang on 不挂断；紧紧握住；稍等
14. ring off 挂断电话
main characters: 主要人物：
eliza doolittle (e): a poor flower girl who is ambitious to improve herself
professor higgins (h): an expert in phonetics, convinced that the quality of a person's english decides his/her position in society
colonel pickering (cp): an officer in the army and later a friend of higgins' who sets him a task
act one fateful meetings第一幕 决定性的会面
11 :15 pm in london, england in 1914 outside a theatre. 1914年某日晚上11点15分，在英国伦敦某剧场外。 it is pouring with rain and cab whistles are blowing in all directions. 下着倾盆大雨，四处响着出租车的鸣笛声。a man is hiding from the rain listening to people's language and watching their reactions. 有一位男士在躲雨，边听人们谈话，边观察着人们的反应。while watching, he makes notes. 一边观察，一边做记录。nearby a flower girl wearing dark garments and a woollen scarf is also sheltering from the rain. 附近有一个卖花姑娘也在躲雨。a gentleman (g) passes and hesitates for a moment.这时有位先生（先）从这儿路过，他迟疑了片刻。
e: come over’ere, cap’in, and buy me flowers off a poor girl.
g: i'm sorry but i haven't any change.
e: i can giv’ou change, cap’in.
g: (surprised) for a pound? i'm afraid i've got nothing less.
e: (hopefully) oah! oh, do buy a flower off me, captain. take this for three pence. (holds up some dead flowers)
g: (uncomfortably) now don't be troublesome, there's a good girl. (looks in his wallet and sounds more friendly) but, wait, here's some small change. will that be of any use to you? it's raining heavily now, isn't it? (leaves)
e: (disappointed at the outcome, but thinking it is better than nothing) thank you, sir. (sees a man taking notes and feels worried) hey! i ain’t done nothing wrong by speaking to that gentleman. i've a right to sell flowers, i have. i ain’t no thief. i'm an honest girl i am! (begins to cry)
h: (kindly) there! there! who's hurting you, you silly girl? what do you take me for? (gives her a handkerchief)
e: i thought maybe you was a policeman in disguise.
h: do i look like a policeman?
e: (still worried) then why did 'ou take down my words for? how do i know whether 'ou took me down right? 'ou just show me what 'ou've wrote about me!
h: here you are. (hands over the paper covered in writing)
e: what's that? that ain't proper writing. i can't read that. (pushes it back at him)
h: i can. (reads imitating eliza) "come over' ere, cap'in, and buy me flowers off a poor girl." (in his own voice) there you are and you were born in lisson grove if i'm not mistaken.
e: (looking confused) what if i was? what's it to you?
cp: (has been watching the girl and now speaks to higgins) that's quite brilliant! how did you do that, may i ask?
h: simply phonetics studied and classified from people's own speech. that's my profession and also my hobby. you can place a man by just a few remarks. i can place any spoken conversation within six miles, and even within two streets in london sometimes.
cp: let me congratulate you! but is there an income to be made in that?
h: yes, indeed. quite a good one. this is the age of the newly rich. people begin their working life in a poor neighbourhood of london with 80 pounds a year and end in a rich one with 100 thousand. but they betray themselves every time they open their mouths. now once taught by me, she'd become an upper class lady ...
cp: is that so? extraordinary!
h: (rudely) look at this girl with her terrible english: the english that will condemn her to the gutter to the end of her days. but, sir, (proudly) once educated to speak properly, that girl could pass herself off in three months as a duchess at an ambassador's garden party. perhaps i could even find her a place as a lady's maid or a shop assistant, which requires better english.
e: what's that you say? a shop assistant? now that's sommat i want, that is!
h: (ignores her) can you believe that?
cp: of course! i study many indian dialects myself and ...
h: do you indeed? do you know colonel pickering?
cp: indeed i do, for that is me. who are you?
h: i'm henry higgins and i was going to india to meet you.
cp: and i came to england to make your acquaintance!
e: what about me? how'll you help me?
h: oh, take that. (carelessly throws a handful of money into her basket) we must have a celebration, my dear man. (leave together)
e: (looking at the collected money in amazement) well, i never. a whole pound! a fortune! that'll help me, indeed it will. tomorrow i'll find you, henry higgins. just you wait and see! all that talk of (imitates him) "authentic english" ... (in her own voice) i'll see whether you can get that for me ... (goes out)
1. adaptation n.适应（性）；改编本
2. plot n.情节；阴谋
3. hesitate vi.犹豫；踌躇
4. uncomfortable adj.不舒服的；不安的；不自在的
5. troublesome adj.带来麻烦的；使人心烦的
6. outcome n.结果；效果
7. mistaken adj.(见解或判断上)错误的；不正确的
8. brilliant adj.光辉灿烂的；杰出的；才华横溢的
9. classify vt.编排；分类；归类
10. betray vt.显露出（本来面目）；背叛
11. dismiss vt.开除；让……离开
12. condemn vt.谴责；使……注定
13. acquaintance n.相识；了解；熟人
14. fortune n.机会；运气；大笔的钱
15. upper adj.(位置或地位)较高的；级别较高的
16. status n. 身份；地位；职位
17. superio adj.优秀的；优等的；较高的；上级的 n.上级；长官
18. antique adj.古时的；（因古老、稀少而）珍贵的文物；古董；古玩
19. musical adj.音乐的；喜爱音乐的 n.音乐戏剧
20. compromise n.&vi.妥协；折衷
21. horrible adj.可怕的；恐怖的；令人不愉快的
22. disgusting adj.使人反感的；令人厌恶的
23. overlook vt.俯视；未看到；忽视；不理会
24. fade vi.&vt.（使）褪色，减弱；逐渐消失
25. classic adj.经典的；第一流的 n.经典著作
26. effective adj.有效的
1. hold up 举起；阻搁；阻挡
2. make one’s acquaintance 结识；与 ……相见
3. in amazement 惊愕地
4. in term of … 就……来说；从……角度
5. show …in 带或领……进来
6. the other day 几天前
7. take away 带走；取走
8. once more 再一次
9. in need of… 需要……
10. take…for .认为……是……；误以为
11. take down 写下；记下
12. pass…off as… (某人)冒充……
13. fade out (声音，画面)逐渐模糊，渐淡
a visit to the zhoukoudiain caves周口店洞穴参观记
a group of students (s) from england has come to the zhoukoudian caves for a visit. an archaeologist (a) is showing them round. 一群英国学生（学）来到周口店洞穴参观，有一位考古学家（考）正领着他们参观。
a: welcome to the zhoukoudian caves here in china. it is a great pleasure to meet you students from england, who are interested in archaeology. you must be aware that it's here that we found evidence of some of the earliest people who lived in this part of the world. we've been excavating here for many years and ...
考：欢迎到中国来参观周口店洞穴。很高兴见到你们这些来自英国并且对考古学感兴趣的学生。你们想必都很清楚，正是在这个地方，我们找到了居住在世界上这个部分最早人类的证据。我们在这儿进行的挖掘工作已经很多年了，而且……s1: i'm sorry to interrupt you but how could they live here? there are only rocks and trees.
a: good question. you are an acute observer. we have found human and animal bones in those caves higher up the hill as well as tools and other objects. so we think it is reasonable to assume they lived in these caves, regardless of the cold.
s2: how did they keep warm? they couldn't have mats, blankets or quilts like we do. it must have been very uncomfortable.
a: we've discovered fireplaces in the centre of the caves where they made fires. that would have kept them warm, cooked the food and scared wild beasts away as well. we have been excavating layers of ash almost six metres thick, which suggests that they might have kept the fire burning all winter. we haven't found any doors but we think they might have hung animal skins at the cave mouth to keep out the cold during the freezing winter.
s3: what wild animals were there all that time ago?
a: well, we've been finding the bones of tigers and bears in the caves, and we think these were their most dangerous enemies. now what do you think this tells us about the life of these early people? (shows picture of a sewing needle)
s2.: gosh! that's a needle. goodness, does that mean they repaired things?
a: what else do you think it might have been used for?
s4: let me look at it. it's at most three centimetres long. ah yes, it seems to be made of bone. i wonder how they made the hole for the ...
s2: (interrupting) do you mean that they made their own clothes? where did they get the material?
a: they didn't have material like we have today. can you guess what they used?
sl: wow! did they wear clothes made entirely of animal skins? how did they prepare them? i'm sure they were quite heavy to cut and sew together.
a: our evidence suggests that they did wear clothes made from animal skins. we continue discovering tools that were sharpeners for other tools. it seems that they used the sharpened stone tools to cut up animals and remove their skin. then smaller scrapers were probably used to remove the fat and meat from the skin. after that they would rub an ample amount of salt onto the skin to make it soft. finally, they would cut it and sew the pieces together. quite a difficult and messy task! now look at this. (shows a necklace)
s2:why, it's a primitive necklace. did early people really care about their appearance like we do? it's lovely!
a:yes, and so well preserved. what do you think it's made of?.
s4:let me see. oh, i think some of the beads are made of animal bones but others are made of shells.
a:how clever you are! one bone is actually an animal tooth and the shells are from the seaside. can you identify any other bones?
s1:this one looks very much like a fish bone. is that reasonable?
a:yes, indeed, as the botanical analyses have shown us, all the fields around here used to be part of a large shallow lake. probably there were fish in it.
s3:but a lake is not the sea. we are miles from the sea, so how did the seashells get here?
a:perhaps there was trade between early peoples or they travelled to the seaside on their journeys. we know that they moved around, following the herds of animals. they didn't grow their own crops, but picked fruit when it ripened and hunted animals. that's why they are called hunters and gatherers. now, why don't we go and visit the caves?
1. alternative n. 可能的选择；选择对象 adj. 供选择的；其他的
2. accuracy n. 精确：准确
3. interrupt vi. 打断…讲话；打岔 vt. 暂时中断或中止
4. assume vt. 假定；设想
5. sharpen vt.&vi. （使）锋利，尖锐，清晰
6. ample adj. 足够的；充足的；富裕的
7. primitive adj. 原始的；远古的；简陋的
8. preserve vt. 保持；保存；保藏n. 禁猎地
9. analysis n. （pl.analyses）分析
10. specific adj. 详细而精确的；确切的；特定的；具体的
11. specifically adv. 确切地；具体地；特别地
12. significance n. 意义；意思；重要性；重要意义
13. somehow adv. 以…方式；不知怎么地
14. systematic adj. 有系统的；有计划的；有条理的
15. radioactive adj. 放射性的；有辐射能的
16. radioactivity n. 放射性
17. applaud vt.&vi. 鼓掌欢迎；赞赏
18. accelerate vt.&vi. 加速；促进
19. arrest vt. 逮捕；吸引 n. 逮捕；拘留
20. dizzy adj. 晕眩的；昏迷的；使人发晕或困惑的
21. relief n.（痛苦或忧虑的）减轻或解除；减轻痛苦的事物
22. affection n. 恋爱；喜爱
23. affectionate adj. 充满深情的；有爱心的
24. patient adj. 耐心的；忍耐的
25. skilful adj.（英）有技巧的：熟练的（~美~skillful）
26. punctuation n. 标点符号
1. show…around 领某人参观
2. regardless of 不管；不顾
3. keep out… 阻止…进入
4. cut up 切碎
5. look ahead 向前看；为未来打算
6. pronounced french accent 明显的法国口音